Introduction of 3 Liquid Cooling Methods for Data Centers

Time of issue:2022-09-26


1 Introduction of liquid cooling system

The heat dissipation method of traditional data centers is air cooling, which is a technology that uses air as a refrigerant to exchange heat for the heat-generating components of the server and take away heat. The IDC liquid cooling system refers to a technology that uses liquid instead of air as a refrigerant to exchange heat for heat-generating components and take away heat. Liquid-cooled servers must be used when liquid-cooled. The server refers to a kind of server in which liquid is injected into the server, and the heat dissipation of the server is taken away through the exchange of cold and heat.

The composition of the liquid cooling system mainly includes the primary side heat exchange part and the secondary side heat exchange part. The primary side refers to the loop that takes away heat from the server and conducts the circulation medium on the secondary side for heat dissipation. The heat from the side is discharged to the outdoor environment or the loop of other heat recovery units.


2 Main forms of liquid cooling

The liquid cooling forms are mainly divided into spray type, cold plate type and immersion type. The main difference between the three types is reflected in the different ways of cooling the server. Spray type liquid cooling is to spray the cooling liquid on the heat dissipation components of the server to take away the heat generated by the server; A small number of heat-generating components (such as hard disks, interface cards, etc.) still use an air-cooled heat dissipation system; immersion liquid cooling means that the heat-generating components of the server are completely immersed in the cooling liquid, and the heat of the server is carried away by the convection or phase change of the cooling liquid. away cooling system. Second, a spray-submerged server does not have a fan, while a cold plate server has a fan. The details are as follows:


2.1 Spray liquid cooling system

Spray-type direct liquid cooling is a precise spray and direct-contact liquid cooling technology for electronic equipment. , and perform heat exchange with it to achieve thermal management of IT equipment. During the working process of heat exchange, the free liquid level of the cooling liquid in the IT equipment is lower than the cooled heating device or the solid thermal conductive material connected to it. The system can exchange heat with the cooling liquid through the heat exchange unit outside the IT equipment to meet the Recycling requirements.


2.2 Cold plate liquid cooling system

The basic working principle of the cold plate liquid cooling cabinet is described as follows: the cold plate assembly is used to contact the high heat flux density components, the heat generated is exported through the cooling medium in the cold plate assembly, and then transferred through one or more cooling circuits through heat exchange, and finally the equipment A liquid cooling implementation in which heat is dissipated to the external environment or recycled.


2.3 Immersion liquid cooling system

The basic working principle of the immersion liquid cooling cabinet is described as follows: by immersing the electronic information equipment in the cooling liquid, a form of heat dissipation that is carried away by the cooling liquid. According to the different shapes of the cooling liquid in the process of heat dissipation, it is divided into phase change and single-phase liquid cooling.



3 Features of liquid cooling

3.1 Make full use of natural cold source, the energy saving effect is obvious

3.2 The computer room can achieve low noise

3.3 Small footprint

3.4 Flexible system layout and transformation

3.5 Low demand for computer room environment

3.6 Improve server reliability and prolong life

    3.6.1 The chip operates at a low temperature and reduces energy consumption

    3.6.2 Increased server life

3.7 Low equipment maintenance expenses

3.8 Large initial investment in equipment

3.9 Customer acceptance needs to be improved


4 Conclusion

In summary, the advantages of spray liquid cooling compared to the other two liquid cooling methods are mainly reflected in the low load-bearing capacity of the machine room, less coolant filling, simple system and low noise in the machine room. Combined with the characteristics of the current data scale, there is a large space for application in the transformation of computer rooms, the upgrade of the enterprise's own computer room, and the BBU small unit in the communication industry, and there is a huge potential for energy saving in the use of natural energy. The new data center cooling method.