Wiring composition in the computer room of the data center

Time of issue:2021-05-13



Ⅰ. Wiring in the computer room of the data center

The wiring space in the computer room of the data center includes the main distribution area, the middle distribution area (optional), the horizontal distribution area, the regional distribution area and the equipment distribution area.

1. Main distribution area (MDA)

The main distribution area includes the main cross-connect (MC) distribution equipment, which is the central distribution point of the data center wiring system. When the equipment is directly connected to the main distribution area, the main distribution area may include horizontal cross-connect (HC) wiring equipment. The main distribution area can be supported by routers, switches, storage area network switching equipment and PBX equipment at the core of the data center network to serve one or more central distribution areas and horizontal distribution areas within the data center at different locations. Or equipment distribution areas, as well as telecommunications rooms outside each data center, and provide services and support for office areas, operation centers and other external support areas. Sometimes, the communication equipment (such as communication transmission facilities) connected to the telecommunications business operator is also placed in this area to avoid the cable exceeding the specified transmission distance or considering that the data center wiring system and communication equipment can be directly installed in the incoming line. The communication service access facilities of the telecommunications service operators are interoperable. The main distribution area is located inside the computer room. In order to improve its safety, the main distribution area can also be set in an exclusive space in the computer room. Every data center should have at least one main distribution area.

2. Intermediate distribution area (IDA)

The optional intermediate distribution area is used to support intermediate cross-connections (IC), which is common in large data centers that occupy multiple buildings, multiple floors, or multiple computer rooms. Each room, each floor or even each building can have one or more intermediate distribution areas, and serve one or more horizontal distribution areas and equipment distribution areas, as well as one or more telecommunications rooms outside the computer room .

As the second-level backbone, the crossed distribution equipment is located between the main distribution area and the horizontal distribution area. The middle distribution area may contain active devices.

3. Horizontal distribution area (HDA)

The horizontal distribution area is used to serve HC equipment that is not directly connected to the main distribution area. The horizontal distribution area mainly includes horizontal distribution equipment, local area network switches, storage area network switches and KVM switches serving terminal equipment. Small data centers may not have horizontal distribution areas, but are supported by main distribution areas. A data center can have computer rooms on each floor, and each floor contains at least one horizontal distribution area. If the horizontal wiring distance of the equipment in the equipment distribution area exceeds the horizontal cable length limit, multiple horizontal distribution areas can be set up. Line area.

In the data center, the horizontal distribution area provides network connections for the terminal equipment located in the equipment distribution area. The number of connections depends on the number of connected equipment ports and the space capacity of the trunking channel. Space should be reserved for future development.

4. Regional Distribution Area (ZDA)

In a large computer room, in order to obtain higher configuration flexibility between the horizontal distribution area and the terminal equipment, the horizontal wiring system can include an optional docking point called the regional distribution area. The regional distribution area is located in the area where the equipment frequently moves or changes. The cable connection can be completed by the distribution facility through the assembly point (CP), or the regional socket can be set to connect the equipment in multiple adjacent areas. There must be no cross-connections in the regional distribution area, and no more than one regional distribution area shall be allowed in the same horizontal cable routing. Active devices cannot be used in the area distribution area.

5. Equipment distribution area (EDA)

The equipment distribution area is the space allocated for the installation of terminal equipment, which includes various types of servers, storage devices, small, medium, and large computers and related peripheral equipment. The horizontal cables of the equipment distribution area are terminated on the connecting hardware fixed to the cabinet or rack. The cabinet of each equipment distribution area shall be equipped with a sufficient number of power sockets and connecting hardware to reduce the length of equipment cables and power cords to the shortest distance. 

Ⅱ. Support space wiring

The wiring space of the data center support space (outside the computer room) includes the incoming line room, the telecommunications room, the administrative area, the auxiliary area and the support area. The entrance facility can be set up to connect with the external wiring network in the incoming line, and the FD wiring module that meets the horizontal cable connection can be configured in the telecommunication room. The intercommunication between the equipment can be completed in the FD place by means of cross or interconnection.

1. Incoming line room

The incoming line is the place where the data center wiring system and the external wiring and the public network interface and intercommunication are used. It is mainly used for the access of telecommunications cables, the communication equipment of telecommunications business operators, and the data required by the data centers of enterprises and institutions themselves. Placement of communication access equipment. These connection hardware facilities used for demarcation are cross-switched by communication cables in the incoming room and connected to the data center. The incoming line room can be set up inside the computer room or combined with the main wiring (MDA) area.

The incoming line should meet the needs of multiple operators who access telecommunications services.

For safety purposes, the incoming line room should be set outside the computer room. Depending on the redundancy level or level requirements, multiple incoming lines can be set up. In the case of a very large data center, the secondary incoming lines are very necessary. This is to make the incoming lines as close as possible to the equipment in the computer room. So that the connection cables between the devices do not exceed the maximum transmission distance requirements of the line.

If the data center only occupies several areas in the building, the relationship between the building's incoming lines, the main incoming lines of the data center, and the optional secondary incoming lines. If the building has only one external line entrance, the incoming line of the main incoming line room of the data center can also be introduced through the incoming line room of the building.

2. Telecommunication room

The telecommunications room is the wiring space outside the support computer room in the data center, including the administrative area, auxiliary area and support area. The telecommunications room is used to house various equipment that provides local data, video, weak current and voice communication services for the normal office and operation and maintenance support of the data center. The telecommunications room is generally located outside the computer room, but if necessary, it can also be combined with the main distribution area or the horizontal distribution area.

The data center telecommunications room and the building telecommunications room are spaces with the same function but different service objects. The telecommunications room of the building mainly serves the wiring facilities on the floor.

3. Administrative management area

The administrative area is a public place used for office, sanitation and other purposes. Including: staff office, foyer, duty room, toilet, changing room, etc. The administrative management area can set up data and voice information points according to the number of service persons and employees.

4. Auxiliary area

The auxiliary area is a place used for the installation, debugging, maintenance, operation monitoring and management of electronic information equipment and software. Including test room, monitoring center, spare parts warehouse, printing room, maintenance room, loading and unloading room, user studio and other areas. The auxiliary area can be equipped with data and voice information points according to the number of workstations and the application needs of the equipment, and is connected to the telecommunications room through horizontal cables.

5. Support area

The support area is a place to support and ensure the completion of the information processing process and necessary technical operations. Including transformer room, diesel generator room, UPS room, battery room, air-conditioning machine room, power station room, fire-fighting facility room, fire-fighting and security control room, etc.

The support area can be the entire space and the equipment cabinet (rack) of the installation site or a single device (table) or control module as a unit, with corresponding data and voice information points set up, and connected to the telecommunications room through horizontal cables.

The data center is divided into several interrelated components such as computer room, support area, auxiliary area and administrative office area. Among them, the integrated wiring system of the information room is the most critical and the most valued. Now this part is called "network wiring". However, the data center as a complete whole, the integrated wiring system of the support area, auxiliary area and administrative office area is also very important. Whether its design is reasonable or not directly determines the difficulty of the data center operation and maintenance engineer's work.