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UPS principle and parallel redundancy scheme
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UPS principle and parallel redundancy scheme

  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2022-07-02
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(Summary description)If you want good a UPS with excellent  redundancy method, please balance price and reliability according to your actual needs.

UPS principle and parallel redundancy scheme

  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2022-07-02
  • Views:

(Summary description)If you want good a UPS with excellent  redundancy method, please balance price and reliability according to your actual needs.

Information

There are several programs for UPS in parallel. We have Collated these programs briefly for your reference.
It mainly reveals the principles and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages.


The sequence is from high to low.


1. Modular parallel + external static switch mode


This mode is currently more advanced and more expensive. Please look at the structure firstly.


 Advantages:
No matter which UPS shut down due to failure, the remaing UPS can bear its load.
During normal operation, the load is shared by all UPS, so it has low load factor.
Set up independent STS static switch and maintenance bypass of STS for easy maintenance, inprove reliability of STS failures and reduced risk points.
Loads can distribute configuration to reduce the risk factor.


Disadvantages:
Need to add more equipment, a utility power distribution cabinet needs to be configured with 2 UPS and 2 STS, it has a relatively large footprint and investment amount.


2. Parallel UPS Hot-Backup System


This mode is currently the most commonly used. Although the cost is not low,  the reliability deserves the price.
If you want to save some cost, you can choose the 2+1 parallel pattern: 3 UPS in parallel, no matter which one suffer failure,  the UPS can keep normal power supply .

The following is the schematic diagram of the 1+1 parallel.


 Advantages:
No matter which UPS shut down due to failure, the remaing UPS can bear its load.
During normal operation, the load is shared by all UPS, so it has low load factor.
When the utility power stops, the battery life time is the cumulative time of all battery packs


Disadvantages:
High technical requirements and complex commissioning,the brand, model and specification of the parallel UPS are required to be exactly the same.
High requirements for the synchronization of the output of each UPS. Once a circulating current is generated asynchronously, it may lead to  short circuit fault.


3. Bypass UPS Hot backup System 


Bypass UPS redundancy mode is a hot backup  mode. At the same time only one UPS is used to provide power with the load, the other one waits.
Once the running main UPS suffer failure,the waiting UPS will take over the load immediately.
The principle is as follows:


Advantages:
Easy to achieve  later transformation,UPS of different brands and different capacities can be set.
Separate maintenance is possible, and the load is still protected by the UPS during maintenance.
Higher operating efficiency than series UPS.
When the utility power stops, the battery life time is the cumulative time of the two battery packs.


Disadvantages:
The system bottleneck of UPS1 is the static bypass switch. Once UPS suffer failure, it may lead to load disconnect.
UPS2 runs without load for long time, with low efficiency and the battery pack can't  discharge  for  long time, the battery  life  decrease.


4. Series UPS Hot Backup System


Series UPS is an early redundancy mode limited by the backwardness of UPS technology.
It is no longer in use, and the principle is as follows:


Advantages:
No matter which UPS shutdown due to failure, the remaining UPS can bear load.
Load is shared by all UPS during normal operation, with low load factor.
Set up independent STS static switch and maintenance bypass of STS for easy maintenance, inprove  reliability of STS failures and reduced risk points.
Loads can distribute configuration to reduce the risk factor.


Disadvantages:
Need to add more equipment, a utility power distribution cabinet needs to be configured with 2 UPS and 2 STS, it has a relatively large footprint and investment.


5. Stand-alone online UPS


The previous list of parallel redundancy mode, and finally look at the principle of UPS stand-alone.


Advantages:
Simple system architecture, easy to implement control logic, low cost.


Disadvantages:
The system bottleneck of UPS1 is the static bypass switch. Once UPS suffer failure, it may lead to load disconnect.
Power outage is required when the whole machine fails and needs to be replaced (can be solved by adding an external bypass).
When the UPS is maintained, it needs to be switched to the bypass utility power supply and the load is not protected.


Summary:
At present, the most common moed is mode "2"; users with higher requirements will choose mode  "1".
Mode "3" is also commonly used in practical applications.
After upgrading the system of the old UPS, it does not affect its normal operation.It is a pity for us to throw it.
It can be a hot backup for new UPS bypass power supply. (When the UPS is running normally, the bypass is in a non-power waiting status).
As the old saying goes,what works for you is right.
If you want good a UPS with excellent  redundancy method, please balance price and reliability according to your actual needs.

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